|1830: birth of the modern world||WhyProphets.com|
1830: the birth of
(Sources: unless stated, all facts and quotations are from the New Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia 1995 and from the on-line Encyclopedia Britannica. Longer quotations are from the Britannica.)
|1830: the birth of modern politics|
1830: the terms "conservative", "socialism" first used in English language
"The term socialism, in its modern sense, made its first appearance around 1830. In France it was applied to the writings of Fourier and the Saint-Simonians and in Britain to those of Robert Owen." (Britannica)
Karl Marx later used 1830 as justification for his theories. "According to Marx, the periodic and worsening crises of overproduction that began about 1830 attest to capitalism's growing inability to take full advantage of the potential for producing wealth that has grown up with it." (Grolier)
"The noun seems to have been first used after 1815 by French Bourbon restorationists such as François-René, vicomte de Chateaubriand. It was used to describe the British Tory Party in 1830 by John Wilson Croker, the editor of The Quarterly Review; and John Calhoun, a formulator of conservative minority rights against majority dictatorship in the United States, also used the term in the 1830s." (Britannica)
...and the Democrats get their name
"The party, or faction, was known by various designations until, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson in the 1830s, it adopted its present name."
1830: birth of the modern parliamentary system in Britain
Previous to that time, the king was the effective head of government, and members of parliament did not all go by party labels. But after some ineffective kings, this began to change: "after 1830, the party system became entrenched, and all members of Parliament began using a party label."
The 1830s: the birth of modern capitalism
"The increase in the scale of employment brought a marked change in the character of employment itself. In [Adam] Smith's day the social distance between employer and laborer was still sufficiently small that the very word "manufacturer" implied an occupation (a mechanic) as well as a capitalist-like position. By the time of the "dark satanic mills" of the 1830s, a great gulf had opened between the manufacturers, who were now a propertied business class, and the men, women, and children who tended their machines for 10- and 12-hour stints. It was from the spectacle of mill labor, described in unsparing detail by the inspectors authorized by the first Factory Act of 1802, that Marx drew much of the indignation that animated his analysis of capitalism. More important, it was from this same factory setting, and from the urban squalor that industrialization also brought, that capitalism derived much of the social consciousness--sometimes revolutionary, sometimes reformist--that was to play so large a part in its subsequent political life."
Although many conservative and socialist ideas can be traced to earlier roots, they were applied in new and revolutionary ways as the world changed from 1830:
Circa 1830: the last nail in the coffin of manorialism
This is discussed on a separate page.
|1830: a revolution spreads out from Britain|
1830: the industrial revolution spreads beyond Britain
"In the period 1760 to 1830 the Industrial Revolution was largely confined to Britain." (Britannica)
But after 1830, the industrial revolution spread throughout the world. Back in Britain, this was the golden age of such engineers as Brunel, Telford, and Stephenson. But it wasn't just the grand changes - small revolutions were beginning as well. For example, it was in the 1830s that lemonade was first sold" (Britannica, history of soft drinks)
1830: the turning point in progress and reform
The British Empire reached its greatest power under Queen Victoria, who came to power in 1837... the year that missionaries brought the restored gospel to England. Much of Britain's strength was down to the work of reformers such as Viscount Palmerston and Henry Peter Brougham, who both first came to power in 1830.
Like the industrial revolution, the reforms that began in Britain, spread to the empire and thus to the rest of the world.
1830: freedom, law and tolerance begin to break out
According to the Britannica, under "United Kingdom, history of - The beginning of political reform":
This was "a major shift in British politics. It was the Wellington ministry that introduced the new Corn Law of 1828 and presented Peel, the prime minister's chief henchman, with the renewed opportunity of reforming the law and, in 1829, with the chance of creating a new paid and uniformed police force for London"
" he persuaded Peel, who had been tempted to resign, and the king, who had to be bullied, that an emancipation act was necessary and inevitable. [he was supported by] religious dissenters, whose civil rights were recognized in 1828. "
The death of George IV, in June 1830, speeded up events.
"[Wellington, under economic and political pressure] decided, therefore, to resign the new prime minister, like most of his colleagues, was committed to introducing a measure of parliamentary reform. For this reason, 1830 marked a real parting of the ways. the new government, aristocratic or not, was the parent of most of the Whig-Liberal administrations of the next 35 years."
|1830: the whole world changes|
The ancient empires in 1830
The return of Rome is discussed below, in the form of the European Union. But what of the other ancient powers? They too were re-born. Modern Greece came into being in 1830, following a war of independence against Ottoman Turkey.
1830 was a great turning point. Before 1966, U.S. customs law defined an antique as an object made before 1830. Furniture is one of the prime fields for antique collectors, and the emphasis is still "on work done before 1830, when factory production became widespread".
Russia in 1830
Around 1830, many intellectuals were debating the future of Russia (then a peasant-based economy). This led to the codification of Russia's laws in 1833, which enabled her economic development.
The African nations in 1830
The Changamire Dynasty was the greatest power in central Africa from the 15th century until its destruction about 1830.
Once again, the period circa 570-1830 is the natural break. The Britannica history of North Africa classes this whole period as simply "From the Islamic conquest to 1830". The turning point in African history was the colonial era, began by the French capture of Algiers in 1830, followed by the Ottoman reoccupation of Tripoli in 1835.
"The Transvaal's name, which means "across the Vaal," originated with the Afrikaners who in the 1830s migrated to the region after crossing the Vaal River." Also in the 1830s, the Boers began to move northward seeking freedom from British control - events that were to have long lasting consequences.
Book of Mormon lands in 1830
The years before 1830 saw the independence of many of the central American colonies. With secession (1830) of Venezuela and Ecuador, 1830 saw the death of Simon Bolivar, "the single most important person in the struggle against Spanish authority in what became known as the Bolivarian countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia). He is called the "Liberator."
And let us no forget the isles of the sea! The Samoan islands were first visited by Europeans in the 18th century but were not settled until - you guessed right - 1830.
But not all of the changes were to the good - 1830 also saw the passing of the Indian Removal Act in the USA.
The birth of modern philosophy
In the first fifty years of the modern era, "The fundamental thinker of the age, who brought together Enlightenment, Romantic and Neoclassical thought" was Hegel (according to the Penguin Atlas of World History). He was active to the end - he died in 1831, and his writings and lectures were mostly published after his death.
"In France, Auguste Comte (1798-1857) wrote his great philosophical history of science, Cours de philosophie positive (1830-42; The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte [abridged]) in six volumes. ...Comte called his philosophy "Positivism," by which he meant a philosophy of science so narrow that it denied any validity whatsoever to "knowledge" not derived through the accepted methods of science. ...Comte's permanent contribution was to initiate an antireligious and an antimetaphysical bias in the philosophy of science that has passed into the 20th century." (Comte also coined the term "sociology" - see below)
|1830: the rise of America|
The 1830s: the rise of America, and (eventual) decline of Europe.
After 1260 years of world domination, Europe finally met its superior in the period around 1830. At last there was an alternative for the oppressed peoples of the world - a country of greater power, greater freedom and greater religious faith.
Although the USA declared independence in 1776, Europe still held many of the cards. Gradually the USA became truly independent from Europe, with the Louisiana Purchase (from Napoleon) in 1803, a second war of independence in 1812-1814, the Florida purchase (from Spain) in 1819, and finally the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 - declaring armed opposition to interference in American affairs by European states. The main architect of American foreign policy in its first hundred years was John Quincy Adams, who was elected to the House of Representatives in 1830 and served nine consecutive terms.
The 1830s: turning point in US immigration
"The nation welcomed virtually all immigrants from Europe in the belief that the United States would become, at least for whites, the "melting pot" of the world and thus in a sense develop what the historian Frederick Jackson Turner called a "new race of men." A major influx did not materialize until the 1830s, when massive numbers of British, Irish, and Germans began entering, to be joined after the Civil War by streams of Scandinavians and then groups from eastern and southern Europe and the Russian Empire; in addition, small numbers came from the Middle East, China, and Japan. "
1830 to 1843: fulfillment of the prophecies about the native Americans
According to Nephi 13:14 in the Book of Mormon, Nephi had a vision of a time when his descendants (among the native Americans) would be driven off their land by the Gentiles:
"And it came to pass that I beheld many multitudes of the Gentiles upon the land of promise; and I beheld the wrath of God, that it was upon the seed of my brethren; and they were scattered before the Gentiles and were smitten."
This was fulfilled during the time the gospel was being fulfilled, 1830 to 1844:
This is from the Britannica, concerning Indian Territory: Originally it was "all of that part of the United States west of the Mississippi, and not within the States of Missouri and Louisiana, or the Territory of Arkansas." Never an organized territory, it was soon restricted to the present state of Oklahoma, excepting the panhandle and Greer county. The Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, Cherokee, and Chickasaw tribes were forcibly moved to this area between 1830 and 1843, and an act of June 30, 1834, set aside the land as Indian country (later known as Indian Territory).'
The 1830s: the rise of democracy and law in America
The development of common law
"After 1776 anti-British feeling led some Americans to advocate a fresh legal system, but European laws were diverse, couched in foreign languages having unfamiliar turns of thought, and unavailable in textbook form. Blackstone's Commentaries, reprinted in America in 1771, was widely used, even though new English statutes and decisions were officially ignored."
"In the 1830s two great judges, James Kent of New York and Joseph Story of Massachusetts, produced important commentaries on common law and equity, emphasizing the need for legal certainty and for security of title to property."
The stage was now set for real freedom and expansion. The individual events and processes are too complex to discuss here, but the Encyclopaedia Britannica sums it up in its Propedia (outline of knowledge) under the section dealing with the rise of America. Its description of this period is: "The United States from 1816 to 1850: nationalism, expansionism, extension of the franchise, and industrialisation". The subtitles that cover 1830 are "Jacksonian democracy (1829-41): extension of the franchise; development of Democratic, Whig, and minor party politics; bank war; nullification; Indian removal policy" and "the Age of Reform 1830-50)". This led to mass immigration, the end of slavery, and America emerging as the world power.
"There were men in all sections who feared the spread of political democracy, but by the 1830s few were willing publicly to voice such misgivings. by the 1830s the common man--of white if not of black or red skin--had come into possession of the vote in most states"
1830 was the key date.
Symbolic of these developments, the Capitol Building in Washington DC was finally completed, by Charles Bulfinch, in 1830.
And Abraham Lincoln gave his first political speech in 1830, and the same year he left the oppressive home of his father, so go out and find his place in the world. (See "Lincoln" by David Herbert Donald. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996, p.36.)
The hand of God was moving on the Americas.
|1830: Europe readies itself for the last days|
The "revolutions of 1830": France, Poland, Italy, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Greece...
The term "evolutions of 1830" is used for "rebellions against conservative kings and governments by liberals and revolutionaries in different parts of Europe in 1830-32." (Britannica):
The movement started in France Liberals throughout Europe were encouraged to hope for a general social revolution, but most were disappointed. Louis-Philippe did not want a war and, contrary to expectations, did not support the Poles, who had revolted against the Russian Tsar. Their revolt was ruthlessly suppressed, and Poland was incorporated into the Russian Empire. Revolts in Italy and the German kingdoms were equally unsuccessful. Belgium declared its independence from The Netherlands, and it was recognized in 1831 as a separate nation. For several years the Greeks had been fighting for their independence from the Ottoman Empire, and in 1832 the European powers recognized Greece as an independent sovereign state.
It will be observed that few of these revolutions were successful. Why? Because it had already been prophesied that something far larger had to happen...
1830: Brussels and the European Union
According to Revelation (and by analogy with the Book of Mormon), all nations will gather together at the last day at Armageddon. For all nations to gather, it would help if they were united. Europe, the great power of the Dark Ages, is finally united as the European Union.
The capital of the European Union is Brussels, in Belgium. And when did Belgium become independent? (Do we really need to ask?) At the time of the mini-revolution in France, in the year 1830.
1830: Germany and the European Union
As noted elsewhere, Germany is at the heart of Europe (the "little horn"), and at the heart of the Gentile nations. Germany, as the most powerful nation in Europe, is now the driving force behind the European Union. German ideas of a single European block first began to take form in the nineteenth century.
The first great fore-runner to the Common Market (which became the European Community and is now the European Union, or EU) was the Zollverein treaty. This was a common market of Prussia and eighteen other states. It expanded its role to include political power, and to absorb other small states, just as the EU is doing (though the Zollverein treaty was on a slightly smaller scale).
The Zollverein treaty was based largely on a more limited customs union of 1828. The Prussian finance minister Motz (who died in 1830) was the force behind the Zollverein treaty, which was signed on 23 March 1833.
The "central bank", and other revolutions in economics
Henri Comte De Saint-Simon was a very influential political thinker, especially among socialists. He described the theory behind the administrative (as opposed to legislative) basis of government, and was the first to use the term "central bank". He is very significant to the origins of the European Union. The most important exposition of his work was published between 1829 and 1830.
It may not have seemed much at the time, but in 1833 banknotes became legal tender in Britain. Notes had existed before, but only as representations of something else (e.g. gold) - of themselves they had no value. In 1833 it became the law that a note had to be accepted as a thing of value in its own right. This was the first step to the modern world economy, where the monetary system is not based on a gold standard, but is ultimately based on nothing more than market confidence in pieces of paper.
For more on these issues, see "The Tainted Source - the undemocratic origins of the European Idea" by John Laughland (London: Little Brown and Company, 1997) especially pages 93-94
Just to make clear, Europe is not "the antichrist". Some web sites say that the ten horns of "the beast" are ten original members of the Common Market. This is only partly true. The European Union is not "the little horn" that dominates the world, but simply the tale end of the horn.
Europe is not even especially evil. Europe is simply represents the dominant nations from the time when the kingdom of God was not on the earth, and the source of the dominant culture in the last days. Europe is only "anti Christ" insofar as any kingdom of this world is not led by Christ is "anti"Christ. Europe, in my opinion, in one of the very finest and best of all the kingdoms of this world, though that may not be saying very much.
And more important than all these things put together...
The kingdom of God was restored to the earth in 1830, after 1260 years of absence.
Right on schedule!
the bottom line
As Oliver Cowdery later wrote (see the small print near the end of the Pearl of Great Price), "these were days never to be forgotten".